Greg Shires

    Greg Shires

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    Calibration Gas for Nitric Oxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Nitrogen Oxides

    Greg Shires

    Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), oxides of nitrogen or nitrogen oxides (NOX) are by products of several processes including incomplete diesel combustion, power plant production & incineration, just to name a few.

    There are often questions regarding which calibration gas to use, what is the correct balance gas, and/or what regulator and tubing should be used.

    Let us get the information on these calibration gases correct.   

    Here are some recommendations to follow:

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    Topics: Gas & Cylinder Selection, Gas Control & Regulator Selection

    NRC Regulators...more options and uses than you may think.

    Greg Shires

    The typical application for bump testing or calibrating your instrument using an NRC regulator requires a fixed flow 0.5 litre/min regulator, a bit of tubing; a calibration cup; your gas mixture; and you are good to go.

    There is nothing wrong with that, provided you are using the correct flow rate, regulator material and tubing. If your instrument has an internal pump, then you should be using the On-Demand Flow Regulator

    There are several regulators which can be used with NRC gas mixtures. Here are a few ideas for making your bump test or calibration system more efficient and functional.

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    Topics: Gas Detection, Gas Control & Regulator Selection

    Calibrating HCN Instruments at Low Concentrations

    Greg Shires

    Gold mines worldwide use cyanide to extract gold from ore.  As environmental standards have increased in most mining areas around the world, cyanidation plant tailings must be treated to remove the cyanide and various cyanide compounds, including hydrogen cyanide (HCN), before they are discharged into a tailing storage facility.  Methods to remove the cyanide and destroy it have increased in cost to the point where processes to recover the cyanide for reuse have become more cost effective than purchasing new cyanide.  

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    Ozone for Water Treatment

    Greg Shires

    Ozone can be used for the treatment of water in multiple industries including municipal water treatment; wastewater; bottled water, wineries and breweries; aquaculture; drinking water for livestock; hydroponics; water treatment in cooling towers and air washers; public swimming pools; aquariums and zoos; commercial laundry facilities; soil/groundwater remediation and more.

    Ozone is typically generated using the electrical discharge method where oxygen is exposed to high voltage resulting in oxygen molecules colliding with O2 to create the unstable O3 molecules. 

    Ozone is 13 times more soluble than oxygen. This solubility makes ozone very useful in many water treatment applications. Ozone can be dissolved in water much easier than oxygen although it does still require mechanical mixing.

    Ozone is one of the most effective oxidants on earth, making it better than most chemical alternatives at breaking down contaminates and killing bacteria.

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    Topics: Gas & Cylinder Selection, Gas Detection, Water & Wastewater Treatment

    Calibration Gas Solutions for Measuring Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

    Greg Shires

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of a group of highly reactive gases known as oxides of nitrogen or nitrogen oxides (NOx). Other nitrogen oxides include nitrous acid and nitric acid. NO2 is used as the indicator for the larger group of nitrogen oxides.

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    Topics: Gas & Cylinder Selection, Gas Hazards & Dangerous Goods, Gas Detection

    Q & A: CEMS Applications in the Marine Industry, with Andreas Heublein

    Greg Shires


    1. What is your primary focus in the Marine Market?

    Westfalen/Heublein provide specialty gas mixtures for the calibration of Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems for marine shipping industry.

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    Topics: Gas Theory & Applications, Marine

    What’s happening with permissible limits for gases in the workplace?

    Greg Shires

    What are exposure standards?

    Exposure standards, listed in the Workplace Exposure Standards for Airborne Contaminants, represent the airborne concentration of a particular substance or mixture that must not be exceeded.

    There are three types of exposure standard:

    • 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA)
    • short term exposure limit (STEL).
    • peak limitation
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    Topics: Gas Hazards & Dangerous Goods, Gas Detection

    Measurement and Calibration Issues with Photo-ionization Detectors

    Greg Shires detectors (PID) are a valuable tool when measuring low level concentrations of organic vapours and hydrocarbons. Organic and inorganic compounds can be measured by a PID in levels anywhere from parts per billion (ppb) up to 10,000 parts per million (ppm).

    Introduced originally as a handheld measuring device, photo-ionization sensors are now found in both single gas and multi-gas gas detection instruments.

    The increase in the use of the PID’s for measuring VOC’s (volatile organic compounds) in different environments creates potential errors in the use of this valuable tool.

    Like all sensor types there are a variety of issues, such as cross sensitivity or interference with photo-ionization (PI) sensors, which users must be aware of in order to use the instrument correctly. 

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    Topics: Gas Theory & Applications, Gas Detection