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    Q & A: CEMS Applications in the Marine Industry, with Andreas Heublein

    Greg Shires

     

    1. What is your primary focus in the Marine Market?

    Westfalen/Heublein provide specialty gas mixtures for the calibration of Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems for marine shipping industry.

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    Topics: Gas Theory & Applications, Marine

    Measurement and Calibration Issues with Photo-ionization Detectors

    Greg Shires

    https://www.equipcoservices.com/support/tutorials/introduction-to-photoionization/Photo-ionization detectors (PID) are a valuable tool when measuring low level concentrations of organic vapours and hydrocarbons. Organic and inorganic compounds can be measured by a PID in levels anywhere from parts per billion (ppb) up to 10,000 parts per million (ppm).

    Introduced originally as a handheld measuring device, photo-ionization sensors are now found in both single gas and multi-gas gas detection instruments.

    The increase in the use of the PID’s for measuring VOC’s (volatile organic compounds) in different environments creates potential errors in the use of this valuable tool.

    Like all sensor types there are a variety of issues, such as cross sensitivity or interference with photo-ionization (PI) sensors, which users must be aware of in order to use the instrument correctly. 

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    Topics: Gas Theory & Applications, Gas Detection

    Prevent Contamination Of Your Gas Mixtures

    Greg Shires

    CAC-Cylinder-Family-172694-editedMany instrumentation manufacturers are producing gas detection monitors with multiple sensor capability of 4, 5, 6 or more sensors in one instrument. Many of those instruments are measuring toxic gases such as ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen dioxide and other gases.   

    Calibration and bump testing will be a requirement for all these sensors but unlike a standard 4 gas mixture of H2S/CO/CH4/O2 each gas must be separate and cannot generally be mixed with other gases. There are potential issues which can arise if correct procedures for handling these gases is not used.

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    Topics: Gas Theory & Applications, Gas & Cylinder Selection, Gas Detection

    Why does temperature affect your gas mixture?

    Matt Shaw

    A calibration gas standard is a homogeneous mixture of components that have the same proportions of its components throughout a given sample.

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    Topics: Gas Theory & Applications

    Financial risk at stake with your LNG quality measurement system.

    EffecTech

    Measurements of gas and liquid natural gas (LNG) quality, along with flow measurements, ultimately determine the commercial value of the gas and LNG, which is vital for the long-term successful operation of a custody transfer / fiscal measurement system. The linearity of these instruments can lead to errors which contribute to the measurement uncertainty.

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    Topics: Gas Theory & Applications, Oil & Gas

    General Rules for Designing Custom Gas Mixtures

    Paul Fry

    We are often asked for many different gases for the same applications. When possible, the required gases can be combined into the same cylinder to reduce the overall gas cost. When creating custom gas mixtures you must be aware of potential issues from mixing different compounds together.

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    Topics: Gas Theory & Applications

    Issues with Liquefied Calibration Gas Mixtures

    Paul Fry

    Liquefied gas mixtures, or ‘liquid mixtures,’ are often used for calibrations where the application demands calibration with a ‘heavy’ or longer-chain hydrocarbon (see demystifying-hydrocarbon-gas-mixtures-in-non-refillable-cylinders). Liquid mixtures have the advantage of closely matching the product being analysed (e.g. stream gas), while also offering increased efficiency by allowing an increased number of calibrations with the same cylinder, when compared to a gaseous mixture.

    While liquid mixtures do have significant advantages, there are some disadvantages to consider.

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    Topics: Gas Theory & Applications

    Determining Accuracy of a Calibration Gas Mixture

    Paul Fry

    In this article we will go over the different terms as they relate to the overall accuracy of a gas mixture.

    Firstly, understand that “accuracy” is a general term which is actually made up of two components: Preparation Tolerance and Measurement Uncertainty

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    Topics: Gas Theory & Applications